Limb reduction

Limb development in vertebrates is an area of active research in both developmental and evolutionary biology, with much of the latter work focused on the transition from fin to limb.Limb formation begins in the morphogenetic limb field, as mesenchymal cells from the lateral plate mesoderm proliferate to the point that they cause the ectoderm above to bulge out, forming a limb bud. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induces the formation of an organizer at the end of the limb bud, called the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which guides further development and controls cell death. [Source: Wikipedia ]

Digital deficiency
Intercalary limb reduction
Longitudinal postaxial limb reduction
Longitudinal preaxial limb reduction
Mixed-type limb reduction
Rudimentary limb
Split type limb reduction
Transverse limb reduction
May Be Caused by
Adams-Oliver syndrome
Al Awadi/Raas-Rothschild syndrome
Aminopterin fetopathy
Amniotic band syndrome
Brachmann-de Lange syndrome
Cavernous angiomatosis and forearm transverse defect
CHILD syndrome
Chorionic villus sampling-transverse limb deficiency
Congenital insensitivity to pain
Diabetes mellitus
Diaphragmatic hernia and ipsilateral upper limb reduction
Ectromelia associated with interstitial deletion of 7q
EEC syndrome
Familial tetra-amelia and multiple malformations
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal varicella syndrome
Goltz syndrome
Grebe chondrodysplasia
Infant of diabetic mother
Intravascular coagulation
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Limb reduction defect and renal dysplasia
Maternal cocaine abuse
Microgastria and limb reduction defects
Möbius syndrome
Odontotrichomelic hypohidrotic dysplasia
Olmsted syndrome
Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis syndrome
Poland syndrome
Popliteal pterygium syndrome
Postaxial acrofacial dysostosis syndrome Miller type
Prune-belly syndrome
Radiation injury
Roberts syndrome
Schinzel phocomelia syndrome
Steinfeld syndrome
Surgical amputation
TAR syndrome
Thalidomide embryopathy
Thermal injury
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
Urethral obstruction sequence and lower limb deficiency
Vohwinkel syndrome
Von Voss syndrome